Aud VA CD Disc 2

      

Introduction  

The Tonal and Speech Materials for Auditory Perceptual Assessment, Disc 2.0 compact audio disc, which is substantially a re-issue of Disc 1.0 of the same name issued in 1992, was produced to provide a collection of high-quality auditory materials for use in assessing auditory perceptual (central) abilities. The tonal and speech materials contained on the disc were selected based on the availability of the materials either through the public domain or through the generosity of the individuals responsible for the materials, including G. Donald Causey, Ph.D. (Northwestern University Auditory Test No. 6), Bob Brose (Technisonic Studios, Inc., St. Louis, Charles E. Harrison, producer of the CID W-1 lists), Kresge Hearing Research Laboratory of the South, New Orleans (dichotic CVs), and James Jerger, Ph.D. (Dichotic Sentence Identification).

The materials on Disc 2.0 of the Tonal and Speech Materials for Auditory Perceptual Assessment compact disc differ from the materials on its predecessor (Disc 1.0) in several ways. The following two tracks that were on Disc 1.0 were eliminated on Disc 2.0: (1) dichotic chords with simultaneous onsets, and (2) dichotic chords with a 90 ms lag in the left channel. The number of frequency and duration tone pattern stimuli were reduced from 60 (Disc 1.0) to 30 (Disc 2.0). Disc 2.0 contains the following six tracks that were not available on Disc 1.0: (1) two Tracks of 25, 2-pair dichotic digits, (2) two Tracks of 25, 3-pair dichotic digits, and (3) two Tracks of 54, randomized 1-, 2-, and 3-pair of dichotic digits (Strouse & Wilson, 1999a,b). The remaining materials on Disc 1.0 were copied digitally onto Disc 2.0.

This compact disc project was sponsored by the Rehabilitation Research and Development Service, VA Headquarters. The Auditory Research Laboratory facilities at the James H. Quillen VA Medical Center, Mountain Home, Tennessee, used to produce the compact disc were provided both by the Medical Research Service and by Rehabilitation, Research and Development Service, VA Headquarters. The following individuals made contributions to the production of Disc 1.0, most of which are continued on Disc 2.0: Steven P. Bornstein, Ph.D., Nancy K. Cambron, M.S., Charles Martinez, M.A., Frank E. Musiek, Ph.D., Doug Noffsinger, Ph.D., and John P. Preece, Ph.D.

Contents

Track

         Left Channel

         Right Channel

Time

  1

1000-Hz Calibration Tone

1000-Hz Calibration Tone

0:17

  2

25, 1-pair Dichotic Digits, List 1

25, 1-pair Dichotic Digits, List 1

1:26

  3

25, 2-pair Dichotic Digits, List 1

25, 2-pair Dichotic Digits, List 1

2:08

  4

25, 2-pair Dichotic Digits, List 2

25, 2-pair Dichotic Digits, List 2

2:07

  5

25, 3-pair Dichotic Digits, List 1

25, 3-pair Dichotic Digits, List 1

3:13

  6

25, 3-pair Dichotic Digits, List 2

25, 3-pair Dichotic Digits, List 2

3:13

  7

54, 1-, 2-, & 3-pair Dichotic Digits

54, 1-, 2-, & 3-pair Dichotic Digits

6:35

  8

54, 1-, 2-, & 3-pair Dichotic Digits

54, 1-, 2-, & 3-pair Dichotic Digits

6:35

  9

30, Dichotic CVs, simultaneous onset 1

30, Dichotic CVs, simultaneous onset

2:35

10

30, Dichotic CVs, 90 ms lag

30, Dichotic CVs, 90 ms lead

2:36

11

30, Dichotic Synthetic Sentences 2

30, Dichotic Synthetic Sentences

4:31

12

Consonant segments of 50 NU No. 6 words

Vowel segments of 50 NU No. 6 words

3:55

13

Consonant segments of 50 NU No. 6 words

Vowel segments of 50 NU No. 6 words

3:56

14

List 3, NU No. 6 words high-pass filter 3

List 3, NU No. 6 low-pass filter

4:01

15

List 4, NU No. 6 words high-pass filter

List 4, NU No. 6 low-pass filter

4:05

16

30 frequency patterns 880 Hz & 1122 Hz

30 duration patterns, 250 ms & 500 ms

3:18

17

NU No. 6, 45% comp + 0.3-s reverb (List 5) 3

NU No. 6, 45% compressed

3:30

18

NU No. 6, 45% comp + 0.3 s reverb (List 6)

NU No. 6, 45% compressed

3:30

19

NU No. 6, 65% comp + 0.3-s reverb (List 7) 3

NU No. 6, 65% compressed

3:22

20

NU No. 6, 65% comp + 0.3-s reverb (List 8)

NU No. 6, 65% compressed

3:20

21

Spondaic Words Sp No MLD 4

Spondaic Words Sp No MLD

5:18

22

100-Hz, Pulsed Phase Cal. Tone

100-Hz, Pulsed Phase Cal. Tone

0:19

73:52

1 Dichotic Nonsense Syllables (CVs) provided by Kresge Hearing Research Laboratory of the South, New Orleans , Louisiana .

2 The Dichotic Synthetic Sentence Identification materials reproduced compliments of James Jerger, Ph.D., University of Texas , Dallas .

3 The NU No. 6 recordings used for the degraded speech tasks were with the compliments of G. Donald Causey, Ph.D., Consultant in Audiology, VA Medical Center, Washington, D.C.

4 The CID W-1 spondaic words used in the MLD paradigm were reproduced from the original recordings produced by Charles E. Harrison at Technisonic Studios, Inc., St. Louis , Missouri .

Description of Materials   

The text that follows describes briefly the materials that are contained on each track of the compact disc. A detailed script of each track and references are provided. The inter-stimulus intervals (ISI) with the various materials are the times between successive stimulus onsets. Normative data for the majority of the materials on the disc are provided in a series of papers in the July, 1994, issue of the Journal of the American Academy of Audiology and in a paper by Humes, Coughlin, and Talley (1996).

Track 1. Both channels contain a 300-ms, 1000-Hz tone burst, followed by a 1-s silent interval and a 15-s, 1000-Hz calibration tone that reflects the peaks of the speech materials as monitored on a calibrated vu meter (Green, Williams, & Kryter, 1959; Lilly, 1967). The tone burst can be used to check the ballistic characteristics of a vu meter. The needle on a calibrated vu meter will swing from -20 vu to 0 vu with minimal overshoot when a 300-ms tone burst is placed across the meter. It should be noted that many meters used on audiometers are not "true" vu meters and/or are not properly calibrated (ANSI, 1954). The 1000-Hz calibration tone, therefore, may not reflect accurately the peaks of the speech materials on non-vu meters and on non-calibrated vu meters. For a variety of reasons, the materials on several tracks do not peak at 0 vu. These exceptions are noted in the text that follows.
Track 2. This 86-s stereo track contains 25, 1-pair dichotic digits (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, and 10) with a 3-s interstimulus interval. The levels of the digits do not reach 0 vu because the duration of each digit is less than the integration time of a vu meter. The task of the subject is to repeat the dichotic digits. [See Broadbent, 1956; Kimura, 1961.]
Track 3. This 128-s stereo track contains 25, 2-pair dichotic digit stimuli, designated List 1. Because the durations of the digit stimuli are different, the interval between digits in a set ranges from 500 to 700 ms with an interstimulus interval of 4 s. [See Broadbent, 1956; Kimura, 1961; Wilson & Jaffe, 1996]
Track 4. This 127-s stereo track is the same as Track 2 but with different 25, 2-pair dichotic digits, designated as List 2.
Track 5. This 193-s stereo track contains 25, 3-pair dichotic digit stimuli, designated List 1. The interval between digits in a set ranges from 500 to 700 ms with an interstimulus interval of 5 s. [See Broadbent, 1956; Kimura, 1961; Wilson & Jaffe, 1996].
Track 6. This 193-s stereo track is the same as Track 4 but with different 25, 3-pair dichotic digits, designated as List 2.
Track 7. This 395-s stereo track contains 18, 1-pair, 18, 2-pair, and 18, 3-pair dichotic digit stimuli interleaved randomly. The interval between digits in a set ranges from 500 to 700 ms with interstimulus intervals of 5 s for the 1-pair and 6 s for the 2- and 3-pair [See Strouse & Wilson, 1999a,b].
Track 8. This 395-s stereo track contains 18, 1-pair, 18, 2-pair, and 18, 3-pair dichotic digit stimuli interleaved randomly. The interval between digits in a set ranges from 500 to 700 ms with interstimulus intervals of 5 s for the 1-pair and 6 s for the 2- and 3-pair.
Track 9. This 155-s stereo track contains the 30 possible pairings of six nonsense (CV) syllables (BA, DA, GA, PA, TA, and KA) in a dichotic format (Berlin, Lowe-Bell, Cullen, Thompson, & Loovis, 1973; Wilson & Leigh, 1996). The syllables were digitized (from the right channel of an analog tape produced by Kresge Hearing Research Laboratory, New Orleans), edited, and aligned at the VA Medical Center, Long Beach. The levels of the syllables do not reach 0 vu because the duration of each syllable is less than the integration time of a vu meter. The task of the subject is to repeat the dichotic nonsense syllables.
Track 10. This 156-s stereo track is identical to Track 9, except the nonsense syllable in the left channel lags by 90 ms the nonsense syllable in the right channel.
Track 11. This 271-s stereo track contains the 30 possible pairings of six synthetic sentences (Fifer, Jerger, Berlin, Tobey, & Campbell, 1983; Noffsinger, Martinez, & Wilson, 1994) in a dichotic format. This version of the Dichotic Sentence Identification Test was produced (digitized, compressed and expanded as needed, and aligned) at the VA Medical Center, Long Beach. The task of the subject is to identify from a list of six sentences the dichotic sentences.
Track 12. This 235-s stereo track contains 50 CVC words that are segmented at the approximate phoneme boundaries and are alternated such that the carrier phrase (Show me) is in both channels, the initial consonant segment is in the left channel, the vowel segment is in the right channel, and the final consonant segment is in the left channel (Wilson, Arcos, & Jones, 1984; Wilson, 1994). Because the carrier phrases on the two channels are recorded 180° out-of-phase (to prevent the patient from experiencing a mid-line image with the carrier phrase), the materials will sound "rough" when both channels are monitored in a single loudspeaker. The task of the subject is to repeat the monosyllabic word. Minimal correct recognition of the words is obtained from either channel individually; maximum correct recognition of the words is obtained when both channels are presented simultaneously.
Track 13. This 236-s stereo track is identical to Track 12, except that the 50 CVC words are in a different randomization.
Track 14. This 241-s track contains monosyllabic words from List 3 of the Northwestern University Auditory Test No. 6 (N. U. No. 6) spoken by a female (Wilson, Zizz, Shanks, & Causey, 1990). The words on the left channel (1) are high-pass filtered (2100-Hz cutoff; 115 dB/octave rejection), whereas the words on the right channel (2) are low-pass filtered (1500-Hz cutoff; 115 dB/octave). The high-pass words on the left channel peak at -15 to -10 vu; the low-pass words on the right channel peak at -3 to 0 vu. The materials sound normal if both channels are fed to a single loudspeaker. Because the words are simultaneous on the two channels, a binaural fusion task can be created by presenting the words in the stereo mode. [See Bocca, Calearo, Cassinari, & Miglivacca, 1955; Matzker, 1957; Smith & Resnick, 1972; Bornstein, Wilson, & Cambron, 1994.]
Track 15. This 245-s track is identical to Track 14, except that the materials are List 4 of the N.U. No. 6.
Track 16. The left channel (1) contains 30 frequency-pattern sequences (six patterns by five randomizations). The low-frequency tone (L) is 880 Hz and the high-frequency tone (H) is 1122 Hz. Both tones are 150 ms with 10-ms rise-fall times (cosine squared). The frequency-pattern sequences have 200-ms interstimulus intervals and 6-s interpattern intervals. Because the frequency pattern tones are shorter than the integration time of a vu meter, the vu meter peaks at -2 to -3 vu with reference to the 1000-Hz calibration tone. [See Pinheiro & Ptacek, 1971; Ptacek & Pinheiro, 1971; Pinheiro & Musiek, 1985; Musiek & Pinheiro, 1987]. The right channel (B) contains 30 duration-pattern sequences (six patterns by five randomizations). The tones are 1000 Hz with 10-ms rise-fall times (cosine squared). The long tone (L) is 500 ms, the short tone (S) is 250 ms, the interstimulus interval is 300 ms, and the interpattern interval is 6 s. [See Pinheiro & Musiek, 1985; Musiek, Baran, & Pinheiro, 1990.] The task of the subject is to repeat (mimic) the tonal pattern. The track time is 198 s. The following are the various combinations of pattern sequences:

Frequency Patterns    Duration Patterns
LLH = 880 Hz, 880 Hz, 1122 Hz LLS = 500 ms, 500 ms, 250 ms 
LHL = 880 Hz, 1122 Hz, 880 Hz LSL = 500 ms, 250 ms, 500 ms 
LHH = 880 Hz, 1122 Hz, 1122 Hz LSS = 500 ms, 250 ms, 250 ms
HLH = 1122 Hz, 880 Hz, 1122 Hz SLS = 250 ms, 500 ms, 250 ms
HLL = 1122 Hz, 880 Hz, 880 Hz  SLL = 250 ms, 500 ms, 500 ms 
HHL = 1122 Hz, 1122 Hz, 880 Hz  SSL = 250 ms, 250 ms, 500 ms

Track 17. The right channel (2) contains 50 carrier phrase and word stimuli from the N.U. No. 6 pool of 200 words that are compressed 45%, i.e., 45% of the carrier phrase and word has been removed. This list is designated List 5 because it contains a composite of words from the original four N.U. No. 6 lists. The left channel (1) contains the same 50 carrier phrases and words that are compressed 45% and reverberated 0.3 s. The task of the subject is to repeat the word that follows the carrier phrase. The track time is 210 s. [See Fairbanks & Kodman, 1957; Beasley, Schwimmer, & Rintelmann, 1972; Kurdziel, Noffsinger, & Olsen, 1976; Wilson, Preece, Salamon, Sperry, & Bornstein, 1994; Stuart & Phillips, 1998.]
Track 18. This track is identical to Track 17, except that a different group of 50 words from the N.U. No. 6 pool of 200 words is used; hence, the designation is List 6. The track time is 210 s.
Track 19. The right channel (2) contains 50 carrier phrase and word stimuli from the N.U. No. 6 pool of 200 words that are compressed 65%, i.e., 65% of the carrier phrase and word has been removed. This list is designated List 7 because it contains a composite of words from the original four N.U. No. 6 lists. Because the words have been compressed so much, the words peak at less than 0 vu. The left channel (1) contains the same 50 carrier phrases and words that are compressed 65% and reverberated 0.3 s. The task of the subject is to repeat the word that follows the carrier phrase. The track time is 202 s. [See Wilson, Preece, Salamon, Sperry, & Bornstein, 1994; Stuart & Phillips, 1998.]
Track 20. This track is identical to Track 19, except that a different group of 50 words from the N.U. No. 6 pool of 200 words is used; hence, the List 8 designation. The track is 200 s.
NOTE: Tracks 17 and 18 contain 100 words; likewise, Tracks 19 and 20 contain 100 words. The two groups of 100 words contain 52 common words.

Track 21. This stereo track contains spondaic words embedded in bursts of broadband noise in the Sp No paradigm, i.e., the spondaic words (S) are 180° out-of-phase on the two channels and the bursts of broadband noise (N) in-phase on the two channels. The 10 spondaic words that are used repetitively are from the Technisonic Studio recording of the W-1 lists (Hirsh et al., 1952) and were selected based on earlier masking-level difference data (Wilson, Shanks, & Koebsell, 1982).The words start 500 ms into the 2000-ms noise bursts that have 200-ms rise-fall times. Four words are recorded at each of 16 signal-to- noise ratios in 2-dB decrements from 0 dB to -30 dB. To avoid "pegging" the vu meter on the noise/word composite signals at 0 dB S/N, the levels are calibrated to -1 vu with reference to the 1000-Hz calibration tone. Because the words are 180° out-of-phase, monitoring the words will be difficult if both channels are fed to one loudspeaker at the same levels. To avoid this problem, monitor only one channel. The interstimulus interval is 5 s (see Script) with a 318 s total time. For relative phase calibration purposes, Track 22 contains 100-Hz tone bursts recorded 180° out-of-phase on the two channels. [See Durlach & Colburn, 1978; Noffsinger et al., 1972; Olsen, Noffsinger, & Carhart, 1976; Wilson, Zizz, & Sperry, 1994.]
Track 22. This 19-s stereo track contains 100-Hz tone bursts that are 50-ms on and 50-ms off recorded 180° out-of-phase on the two channels. These tone bursts are for the relative phase calibration of the two channels of audiometers. The procedure for phase calibration requires an NBS-9A, 6 cm3 coupler, a microphone, a microphone amplifier or sound-level meter, and an oscilloscope. The output of the amplifier or meter is fed to the oscilloscope. If the earphones are in-phase with each other, then the tone bursts will be out-of-phase at the oscilloscope, i.e., the onset of the waveform through one earphone will be positive whereas the onset of the waveform through the other earphone will be negative. If these results are not obtained, then reversing the leads to one earphone will produce the correct phase relation.

Script for each track Download scripts here.

References
American National Standards Institute. (1989). Specifications for Audiometers. (ANSI S3.6-1989).  New York American National Standards Institute.

American National Standards Institute. (1954). Volume Measurements of Electrical Speech and Program Waves. ANSI C16.5-1954. New York : American National Standards Institute.

Baran, J. A., Musiek, F. E., & Reeves, A. G. (1986). Central auditory function following anterior sectioning of the corpus callosum. Ear & Hearing. 7:359-362.

Beasley, D. S., Schwimmer, S., & Rintelmann, W. F. (1972). Intelligibility of time compressed CNC monosyllables. Journal of Speech & Hearing Research. 15:340-350.

Berlin, C. I., Lowe-Bell, S. S., Cullen, J. K., Thompson, C. L., & Loovis, C. F. (1973). Dichotic Speech Perception: an interpretation of right-ear advantage and temporal offset effects. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America . 53:699-709.

Bocca, E., Calearo, C., Cassinari, V., Migliavacca, F. (1955). Testing "cortical" hearing in temporal lobe tumors. Acta Otolaryngologica. 45:289-304.

Bornstein, S. P., Wilson, R. H., & Cambron, N. B. (1994). Low-pass and high-pass filtered Northwestern University Auditory Test No. 6 for monaural and binaural evaluation. Journal of the American Academy of Audiology , 5:259-264.

Broadbent, D. E. (1956). Successive responses to simultaneous stimuli. Journal of Experimental Psychology. 8:145-162.

Durlach, N. I., & Colburn, H. S. (1978). Binaural phenomena. In E. C. Carterette & M. P. Friedman (Eds.) Handbook of Perception, Hearing. New York : Academic Press. 365-466.

Fairbanks, G., & Kodman, F. (1957). Word intelligibility as a function of time compression. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America . 29:636-641.

Fifer, R. C., Jerger, J. F., Berlin, C. I., Tobey, E. A., & Campbell, J. C. (1983). Development of a dichotic sentence identification test for hearing-impaired adults. Ear & Hearing. 4:300-305.

Fletcher, H., & Steinberg, J. C. (1929). Articulation testing methods. Bell System Technical Journal. 8:806-854.

Green, D. M., Williams, C., & Kryter, K. D. (1959). Peak vu deflection and energy for monosyllabic words. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America . 31:1264-1265.

Hirsh, I. , Davis , H., Silverman, S. R., Reynolds, E., Eldert, E., & Benson, R. W. (1952). Development of materials for speech audiometry. Journal of Speech & Hearing Disorders.17:321-337.

Humes, L. E., Coughlin, M., & Talley, L. (1996). Evaluation of the use of a new compact disc for auditory perceptual assessment in the elderly. Journal of the American Academy of Audiology .  7:419-427.

Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. (1984). IEEE Standard Dictionary of Electrical and Electronic Terms. ANSI/IEEE Std 100-1984. New York : The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers.

Kimura, D. (1961). Some effects of temporal-lobe damage on auditory perception. Canadian Journal of Psychology 15:156-165.

Kurdziel, S., Noffsinger, D., & Olsen, W. O. (1976). Performance by cortical lesion patients on 40% and 60% time-compressed materials. Journal of the American Audiological Society. 2:3-7.

Lackner, J., & Teuber, H. L. (1973). Alterations in auditory fusion thresholds after cerebral injury in man. Neurophychologia . 11:409-415.

Lilly, D. J. (1967). Calibration of electroacoustic apparatus: disc reproduction systems. Asha. 9:367.

Matzker. J. (1959). Two new methods for the assessment of central auditory functions in cases of brain disease Annals of Otology, Rhinology, & Laryngology . 68:1185-1197.

Musiek, F. E., Baran, J., & Pinheiro, M. L. (1990). Duration pattern recognition in normal subjects and patients with cerebral and cochlear lesions. Audiology. 29:304-313.

Musiek, F. E., Gollegly, K. M., & Ross, M. K. (1985). Profile of types of central auditory processing disorders in children with learning disabilities. Journal of Childhood Communication Disorders. 9:43-63.

Musiek, F. E., & Pinheiro, M. L. (1987). Frequency patterns in cochlear, brainstem, and cerebral lesions. Audiology. 26:79-88.

Musiek, F. E., Pinheiro, M. L., & Wilson, D. (1980). Auditory pattern perception in split-brain patients. Archives of Otolaryngology. 106:610-612.

Noffsinger, D., Martinez , C. D., and Wilson, R. H. (1994). dichotic listening to speech: Background and normative data for digits, sentences, and nonsense syllables (CVs). Journal of the American Academy of Audiology . 5:248-254.

Noffsinger, D., Musiek, F. E., and Wilson, R. H. (1994). The Veterans Administration compact disc (VA-CD) recording for auditory perceptual assessment: Background and introduction. Journal of the American Academy of Audiology . 5:231-235.

Noffsinger, D., Olsen, W., Carhart, R., Hart, C., & Sahgal, V. (1972). Auditory and vestibular aberrations in multiple sclerosis. Acta Otolaryngologica. 303:1-63.

Olsen, W., Noffsinger, D., & Carhart, R. (1976). Masking level differences encountered in clinical populations. Audiology. 15:287-301.

Pinheiro, M. L., & Ptacek, P. H. (1971). Reversals in the perception of noise and tone patterns. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America . 49:1778-1782.

Ptacek, P. H. & Pinheiro, M. L. (1971). Pattern reversal in auditory perception. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America . 49:493-498.

Pinheiro, M. L., & Musiek, F. E. (1985). Sequencing and temporal ordering in the auditory system. In M. L. Pinheiro and F. E. Musiek (Eds.) Assessment of Central Auditory Dysfunction: Foundations and Clinical Correlates. Baltimore : Williams & Wilkins.

Smith, B. & Resnick, D. (1972). An auditory test for assessing brain-stem integrity: Preliminary report. The Laryngoscope. 82:414-424.

Strouse, A. L., and Wilson, R. H. (1999a). Recognition of 1-, 2-, and 3-pair dichotic digits under free and directed recall. Journal of the American Academy of Audiology (under review ).

Strouse, A. L., and Wilson, R. H. (1999b). Stimulus length uncertainty with dichotic digit recognition. Journal of the American Academy of Audiology. 10:219-229.

Stuart, A., & Phillips, D. P. (1998). Recognition of temporally distorted words by listeners with and without a simulated hearing loss. Journal of the American Academy of Audiology . 9:199-208.

Wilson, R. H. (1994). Word recognition with segmented-alternated CVC words: Compact disc trials. Journal of the American Academy of Audiology . 5:255-258.

Wilson, R. H., Arcos, J. T., & Jones, H. C. (1984). Word recognition with segmented-alternated CVC words: A preliminary report on listeners with normal hearing. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research. 27:378- 386.

Wilson, R. H., & Jaffe, M. S. (1996). Interactions of age, ear, and stimulus complexity on dichotic digit recognition. Journal of the American Academy of Audiology . 7:358-364.

Wilson, R. H., & Leigh, E. D. (1996). Identification performance by right- and left-handed listeners on the dichotic consonant-vowel (CVS) materials recorded on the VA-CD. Journal of the American Academy of Audiology . 7:1-6.

Wilson, R. H., & Margolis, R. H. (1983). Measurements of auditory thresholds for speech stimuli. In D. F. Konkle & W. F. Rintelmann (Eds.). Principles of Speech Audiometry. pp. 79-126.  Baltimore : University Park Press.

Wilson, R. H., Preece, J. P., Salamon, D. L., Sperry, J. L., and Bornstein, S. P. (1994). Effects of time compression and time compression plus reverberation on the intelligibility of Northwestern University Auditory Test No. 6. Journal of the American Academy of Audiology . 5:269-277.

Wilson, R. H., Preece, J. P., & Thornton, A. R. (1990). Clinical use of the compact disc in speech audiometry. Asha. 32:47-51.

Wilson, R. H., Shanks, J. E., & Koebsell, K. A. (1982). Recognition masking-level differences for 10 CID W-1 spondaic words. Journal Of Speech and Hearing Research. 25:624-628.

Wilson, R. H., Zizz, C. A., Shanks, J. E., & Causey, G. D. (1990). Normative data in quiet, broadband noise, and competing message for Northwestern University Auditory Test No. 6 by a female speaker. Journal of Speech and Hearing Disorders. 55:771-778.

Wilson, R. H., Zizz, C. A., & Sperry, J. L. (1994). Masking-level difference for spondaic words in 2000-ms bursts of broadband noise. Journal of the American Academy of Audiology . 5:236-242.

General References

Baran, J. A., & Musiek, F. E. (1990). Behavioral assessment of the central auditory nervous system. In W. F. Rintelmann (Ed.). Hearing Assessment, Second Edition. pp. 549-602.  Austin : Pro-Ed, Inc.

Lynn, G. E., & Gilroy , J. (1977). evaluation of central auditory dysfunction in patients with neurological disorders. In. R. W. Keith (Ed.). Central Auditory Dysfunction. pp. 177-221. New York : Grune & Stratton.

Noffsinger, D. (1985). Dichotic-listening techniques in the study of hemispheric asymmetries. In D. F. Benson and E. Zaidel (Eds.). The Dual Brain. pp. 127-141. New York : The Guilford Press.

Rintelmann, W. F., & Lynn, G. E. (1983). Speech stimuli for assessment of central auditory disorders. In D. F. Konkle & W. F. Rintelmann (Eds.). Principles of Speech Audiometry. pp. 231-283. Baltimore : University Park Press.










Script for each track Download scripts here.


For more information and ordering, please contact Dr. Richard Wilson at



Senior Carrier Research Scientist, Professor VA Academic Faculty

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