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Appalachian Student Research Forum

Office of Research and Sponsored Programs

Division III

Abstracts Submitted:Division III - Graduate students (2 + years) - Natural Sciences & Mathematics


ASSESSING THE BENEFIT OF A TINNITUS TREATMENT PROTOCOL

A. Danielle Rose, M.S. and Marc Fagelson, Ph.D., Department of Communicative Disorders, East Tennessee State University, Johnson City, TN,37614

Self-assessment forms and diagnostic tests were used to assess benefits of a treatment program that addressed tinnitus and hyperacusis severity in a population of 30 veterans (29 males, 1female) between the ages of 43 and 79. Patients were enrolled in the treatment program for an average of 20.8 months (range=12-31 months). For the purposes of this study, tinnitus was defined as the subjective perception of a sound lacking an environmental correlate. Hyperacusis was defined as the over-sensitivity to an environmental sound present at a level that would not produce excessive loudness for individuals with normal hearing sensitivity. Treatment strategies included guided counseling regarding auditory and neurological mechanisms of tinnitus coupled with sound therapy designed to reduce the tinnitus disruption. Sound therapy instruments utilized by the subjects included hearing aids, cochlear implants, bedside noise generators, and near-level tinnitus maskers. The tinnitus handicap inventory (THI), self-assessment forms, and loudness discomfort level (LDL) testing were administered to assess benefit of the treatment program. Subjects were first interviewed using an interview form adapted from Jastreboff and Jastreboff, 1999. The THI was then administered in interview format to all patients. Initial sessions were approximately two hours in length. Follow-up sessions lasted approximately one hour. Most patients returned for at least three follow-up visits over the course of their treatment. The correlation between the patients hearing thresholds and the tinnitus handicap inventory (THI) score were poor, consistent with previous reports. Pre and post-testing with the THI indicated that 36.7% of the test subjects experienced significant improvement in tinnitus handicap. The total scores and all sub-scale scores on the THI showed statistically significant improvements. An analysis of the self-assessment forms revealed that 27% of the subjects experienced improvement with concentration, 27% experienced improvement with sleep, 36.7% experienced improvement with quiet recreational activities, and 23.3% experienced improvement with social activities. LDL testing was administered at the initial and post treatment sessions with twenty-two of the thirty subjects. LDL testing indicated that hyperacusis severity was reduced by 13.6% in the right ear and 4.6% in the left ear from the initial evaluation to the post treatment evaluation. Regarding test subject satisfaction with the treatment program, 93.3% expressed satisfaction, and 90% indicated they would be unhappy if asked to return their sound generating devices. Test subjects appeared to be satisfied with their overall experiences with the tinnitus treatment program. The clinical implications of these findings will be discussed.


SYNTHESIS OF A PHOTOREACTIVE GERANYLCYSTEINE DERIVATIVE

Qian Li and Dr. Hamid S. Kasmai, Department of Chemistry, East Tennessee State University, Johnson City, TN 37614

Protein prenylation is a posttranslational modification involving attachment of a farnesyl (C15) group from farnesyl diphosphate (FPP) or a geranylgeranyl (C20) group from geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGPP) to a specific protein-derived cysteine residue through a thioether linkage. This process is catalyzed by protein prenyl transferases that are being studied due to the finding that oncogenic Ras is farnesylated and its mutant forms have been detected in a variety of human cancers. Inhibition of this posttranslational modification and elimination of the activity of Ras may serve as a possible cancer chemotherapy. In this research, we focus on substrate studies. Specifically, a synthesis of a photoreactive geranylcysteine derivative to be studied as a mimic for farnesylcysteine derivative is targeted in this project. The attempted syntheses and characterization of intermediates will be presented.


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